a large colony of ants in which it is often impossible to distinguish between individual nests (A4)


a place where magma (molten rock) and/or gas comes to the surface from within the earth’s core (A1)

Volcanic ejecta

fragments of lava or already solidified rock that is thrown into the air (or ‘ejected’) by a volcanic explosion (A1)

Volcanic ash

volcanic ejecta that is less than .5 centimeters (.2 inch) in diameter comprised of already solid rock, crystals from solid rock, or particles of lava that were thrown up as liquid spray (A1)


a hole left behind when lava cools quickly and traps gases (A1)


an ant behavior strategy in which ants of the same species form large colonies of many different nests (A4)

Under-rock survey

a research technique in which researchers lift rocks and catalogue the invertebrates they find there (A4)


the boundary between the atmospheric layers troposphere and stratosphere where the drop in temperature with increasing altitude ceases (A2)