a large colony of ants in which it is often impossible to distinguish between individual nests (A4)


an ant behavior strategy in which ants of the same species form large colonies of many different nests (A4)

Under-rock survey

a research technique in which researchers lift rocks and catalogue the invertebrates they find there (A4)


a process by which regurgitated food is passed among members of an ant colony (A4)

Tramp species

any species (such as an ant) that is well-adapted to living in close association with humans and easily dispersed around the world as humans ship goods and travel from one place to another (A4, C4)


a reproductive female ant (A4, C4)


an intermediate stage of a metamorphic insect (such as a moth, ant, or beetle) that is usually enclosed in a cocoon or case (A4)


an ant behavior strategy in which each nest has more than one queen (A4)

Pitfall trap

a container buried flush with the ground surface and filled with bait and a preservative to attract, trap, and preserve foraging invertebrates (A4)